Hard Ops Boolean system
With the Hard Ops 8 update. Booltool is no longer a required dependency. In fact it is recommended to use the new system instead since it's more catered to our own tools. There are also edit mode behaviors now.
If Booltool is present it will respect it and not assign our hotkeys.
The hotkeys are as follows Object Mode - ctrl + numpad + / performs union - ctrl + numpad - / performs subtraction - ctrl + numpad * / peforms slicing
Edit Mode - ctrl + alt + numpad + / performs union - ctrl + alt + numpad - / performs subtraction
There is also a display for the operator to let you know details about the operation.
As of now the boolean tool has 3 alternate solutions. - Carve (most stable, worst topo) - B-Mesh (least stable, best topo result)
Bmesh will require there to be guidance edges in order to ensure a successful cut. This is something thats best practiced on a simple object to best practice. Not having guidance edges with bmesh will result in cuts not working properly.
Booleans and Modifiers
Modifiers are taken into consideration when doing booleans and cutting.
This can lead to some misunderstandings with users of what is real when a cut is made.
First lets create a test mesh for this example.
From here lets mirror and bisect the model making the work only required on one side.
Using the ctrl + ~ helper I will set the behavior then use the hotkey alt + shift + x to symmetrize it on the x axis.
From here you can see one half is real and the other is fake via the modifier. This also means I cannot cut or edit the right side and any cutting near the symmetry point will cause issues.
The things to note are as follows: - with the mirror modifier active cuts can still be made to the real side - cuts cannot be made at the mirror junction area - to do cuts with the center the mirror will have to be applied
It's important to note that since the mesh is open faced mirrored that slicing might also have some issues. But with an understanding on what you're providing the boolean modifier it becomes more predictable on the output.
To conclude, lets say we did want to cut across the form's xjunction.
I would apply the mirror modifier to do my cuts then use the alt + shift + x hotkey to readd bisect mirroring to the object.
Booleans And Curvature
Curvature can be a tricky thing to use with booleans and to be honest there is no shortcut to efficient geometry however there are some understandings that can make it easier.
Using a boolean on a cylinder is the same in Hard Ops as it would be with just booleans alone.
As you can see the geometric result was quite bad. This is due to the surfacing / curves ngons and the bevel on top. There are a couple of ways to fix this.
-adding geometry around the area to isolate the normal shading
-removing doubles for double vertices in the same areas while merging near miss vertices
This can require a small amout of work however we are always looking into ways to improve this.
The difference between them can be quite immense.
This is how it was cleaned up.
This video was a study of sort of curved surfaces and how it works with inserts and slicing.
A nice demonstration of the inadequacies of booleans for hard surfaces can be shown in making a pokeball. I did a small study about how it can be done quickly with booleans versus efficiently with a cast modifier and subdivision blocking.
You can see with the surfaces that there is still a little touchup work to be done. However I must say that Hard Ops is not just for booleans it also is a tool for helping get a "finished" result. So now lets try using a cast modifier with subdivision to get the shape more sharper.
Cast Modifier With Subdivision Blocking
In this example the finishing was done via the Csharpen while the initial shape is blocked in using modifiers efficiently and the cast modifier. While this can't work in all cases. It just serves as an example of an alternative way to approach such a shape.
More On Booleans And Curvature
Let's start by convering a cube to a sphere.
And then slicing it.
All the cross edges that are present will make the csharpen not operate correctly without some cleanup. This is due to the fact that the geometry solved the bevel modifier so if the edge flow is less than optimal so will the behavior of the bevel modifier.
Using the CleanMesh(E) function can help in this situation however for the exterior piece we see that cleanup will be needed. So lets clean it up.
I used symmetrize y and then z to put a symmetry division loop that allowed me to rip the geometry with V and then mirror it using mirror mirror which is alt + shift + y then opened up the modifier helper with ctrl + ~ and added the z axis as well.
From there is was a matter of cleanup and merging verts. Alt + M >> Merges points. (its important to merge them in a way that doesnt affect silouette.) GG >> Edge slide. (when dealing with form you want to move points without interupting the form. GG >> Edge slide is my favorite change to Blender)
As the geometry gets finer you can have a large bevel width because you are working in finer and finer detail. So lower the bwidth as you work lower and lower. That is why it is part of the main Q menu when the bevel modifier is present.
Let's add an additional cylindrical cutout in the front.
A few things to note in this example.
- when you add a subdivision to a cylinder it turns to something not nice. Just ssharpen it. And then it will hold its form. That is due to the creasing.
- I use ssharpen on spherical shapes to smooth them. I know they have no hard edges and therefore will get smoothed only. If subdivision is there the underlying mesh will be creased so keep that in mind.
- I used the boolean hotkey of ctrl + numpad minus to subtract it then used Csharpen to apply the boolean and make the geo real. This is one of the main behaviors of csharpen.
I can clean it up much easier if I use the same symmetry tricks. However I can also use the auto-mirror to quickly mirror as well and just add the Z axis as well so lets do that.
After the mesh cleaning we got rid of some planar elements at the base but for the most part the bevel still looks bad. So once again its time to fix that geometry.
Merge here, merge there. As you do it more and more it gets easier however this is the foundation of using booleans, and bevels with curved surfaces.
I took the original cylinder used for the bevel and made it real again. First I made it solid in the Settings menu. Then I reset the sstatus which made it a regular shape in the eyes of Hard Ops. From here I was able to do the following.
- apply subdivision using the modifier helper
- csharpen to add a bevel and set the mesh to a csharp form
- clean mesh(E) to dissolve planar verts like the junction on the flat faces
First I will add a cube and rotate it 45 to make a cut. Then use cslice in the Q menu. As you can see the geo is pretty bad. Lets finish cleaning that up.
The main functions used here were the following.
- ctrl + X >> dissolve geometry
- G + G >> edge slide
- alt + m >> merge
And in less than a minute the area was looking much better. All thats left is the sliced piece. Most of these gifs are less than a minute long and I'm also trying my best to do them at a speed that allows readers to follow.
Now this mesh is looking great. But there is no time to admire. Time to mess things up again.
The main piece still has the mirror modifier on the main axis of the form. That limits my ability to work and boolean in those areas because the geo is not real. Because of that I often mirror things. Apply mirror. Re-mirror.
The mirror has some advantages though. Like the previous slice. But lets also do something additive.
And now for the cleanup.
For this double curvature merger the process is more difficult but requires a steady hand and patience. A few notes on this process
- I press alt + m and then to do it subsequently I use shift + r to repeat last command. In my case I used to merge to last and then repeated after selecting the right parts with always the point to meet at being last.
- Also the ssharpen didn't completly mark it so I had to do that in edit mode. This is a common thing with curvature. Degress less than 30. Its easier to manually correct than to tweak the Csharpen F6 menu which might make it misbehave on other objects.
Now to apply the mirror on the main body and make a larger cut.
For this one it was just a matter of clean mesh and symmetrize and my work was done.
Just to do a few more cuts on this surface. Using the same tools as previous.
And to top it off. Lets detail the center a bit.
And from here mirror mirror. Cslicing and then CleanMesh after a few merges.
By this point you should have a pretty good idea.
But it never ends.
Once you start assigning materials using the Alt + M in object mode and the Q menu in edit mode you can get some pretty nice results. In fact I use slicing as a way to separate materials and pieces by using this color blockout stage as a way to assist with design.
By the time I am rendering. Cycles does all the work of making it look pretty.
Rendering is how I judge the surfacing of the model and the reflections. If the surface was optimized poorly there will be distortions and pinches in the reflection. So it is quite the balancing act. But the goal behind Hard Ops is to make surfaces that aren't afraid of the closeup.
This file is available with the other Hard Ops files if you want to see it for yourself. The filename is, (008- Drone).q
Hard Ops provides no materials but they are easy to acquire. In fact the inserts have placeholder materials that are intended to be replaced by you. I also wrote a blog post about my materials and which ones I use in addition to how my default scene is set up.
And with this thought process you would continue working on the shape. Cleaning things up and refining things until you have result you like.